Table of Contents

Introduction to Dog Training

Hey there, and a big warm welcome to the exciting realm of dog training! 🐶 This is where the adventure starts on your path to having a wonderfully behaved and super happy furry friend by your side.

In this section, we’re going to give you a fantastic introduction to the world of dog training. It’s like your first step into a world of wagging tails and joyful barks!

So, get ready to dive in and learn all about the essential things every dog owner should know. Let’s make this journey pawsitively awesome together!

Dog Training Basics

Dog training is a process that involves teaching your furry friend certain behaviors and commands to ensure they become well-mannered and responsive to your cues.

It’s not just about obedience; it’s also about fostering a strong bond between you and your dog. Here are some key points to consider:

Consistency is Key: Dogs thrive on routines and consistency. When you establish clear rules and routines, your dog will find it easier to understand and follow your commands.

Positive Reinforcement: Reward-based training is highly effective. Whenever your dog displays the desired behavior, reward them with treats, praise, or toys. This creates a positive association with the behavior.

Patience and Persistence: Remember that dogs learn at their own pace. Be patient and persistent, and avoid becoming frustrated. Training takes time and repetition.

Different Dog Training Approaches

There are various approaches to dog training, each with its own philosophy and methods. Some popular methods include:

Positive Reinforcement Training: This approach focuses on rewarding good behavior rather than punishing bad behavior. It emphasizes using treats, praise, and toys as motivators.

Clicker Training: Clicker training involves using a clicker to mark the desired behavior, followed by a reward. This precise marker helps dogs understand exactly which action led to the reward.

Alpha Dog or Dominance Training: This approach, based on pack hierarchy, emphasizes the owner as the alpha. While this method was popular in the past, modern trainers tend to avoid overly dominant techniques.

Understanding Your Dog’s Body Language

A crucial aspect of effective dog training is understanding the signals your dog communicates through their body language. This helps you gauge their emotions and reactions. Here are a few key points:

Tail Wagging: While often associated with happiness, tail wagging can indicate various emotions. A relaxed wag usually means your dog is content, while a stiff wag could signal alertness or tension.

Ears and Eyes: Forward-facing ears and soft, relaxed eyes generally indicate a calm and friendly demeanor. Pinned-back ears and intense staring might suggest fear or aggression.

Body Posture: A dog with a relaxed posture is comfortable, while a tense body can indicate stress. A lowered body might signify submission or anxiety.

Emotion Dog Training
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Essential Dog Training Supplies

Having the right tools can make dog training smoother and more effective. Here’s a list of essential supplies:

Leash and Collar/Harness: A sturdy leash and well-fitting collar or harness are necessary for control during walks and training sessions.

Treats: High-value treats serve as rewards during training. Make sure they’re small, flavorful, and easily consumable.

Clicker: If you’re using clicker training, this small device helps mark desired behaviors with precision.

Toys: Interactive toys can be used as rewards and distractions, keeping training sessions engaging.

Welcoming a Dog into Your Home

Bringing a new dog into your home is an exciting and rewarding experience.

This section will guide you through the process of welcoming both puppies and adult dogs, ensuring a smooth transition and a happy beginning for your furry friend’s new journey with your family.

Welcoming a New Puppy

Puppies are bundles of joy, full of energy and curiosity. Here’s how to start this journey on the right paw:

1. Puppy-Proof Your Home

Just as you would childproof for a baby, puppy-proofing is essential. Remove hazards, secure cords and chemicals, and create a safe space for your new addition.

2. Create a Comfortable Space

Set up a cozy and quiet area for your puppy to sleep and rest. A crate with soft bedding can provide a secure den-like environment.

3. Establish a Routine

Puppies thrive on routine. Create a feeding, potty, and play schedule to help them adjust and feel secure.

Initial Puppy Care

Taking care of a puppy requires attention to its unique needs:

1. Veterinary Care

Schedule a visit to the vet for vaccinations, deworming, and a general health check. Discuss a vaccination schedule and health plan with your vet.

2. Nutrition

Choose a high-quality puppy food that meets their nutritional requirements. Consult your vet for guidance on portion sizes and feeding frequency.

3. Socialization

Expose your puppy to various people, places, and experiences to help them become well-adjusted and confident adults.

Welcoming an Adult Dog

Adopting an adult dog comes with its own considerations:

1. Patience is Key

Adult dogs might take longer to adjust to a new home compared to puppies. Be patient and understanding during this transition.

2. Learn Their History

If adopting from a shelter or rescue, gather as much information as possible about the dog’s past experiences, preferences, and any behavioral quirks.

3. Gradual Introduction

Allow your new adult dog to explore your home gradually. Provide a quiet space where they can retreat if they feel overwhelmed.

Adult Dog Training
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Introducing Your Dog to Kids and Other Pets

A harmonious introduction is crucial when you have other family members, kids, or existing pets:

1. Kids

Teach children how to approach and interact with the dog respectfully. Supervise their interactions initially to ensure a positive start.

2. Other Pets

Introductions between dogs and other pets should be gradual and controlled. Use positive reinforcement to reward calm and friendly behavior.

3. Training and Boundaries

Establish clear rules and boundaries for interactions between your dog, kids, and other pets. Consistent training and supervision are essential.

Foundational Training Techniques

In this section, we’ll delve into the essential training techniques that lay the groundwork for a well-behaved and socially confident dog.

From house training to leash manners, these techniques will help you establish a strong foundation for a harmonious relationship with your furry companion.

Crate Training a Puppy: The Cozy Den

Crate training is like giving your puppy a cozy den of their own. When done right, it provides a safe space for your pup to retreat to and helps with various aspects of their training. Here’s how to master crate training:

Proper Crate Use

Choose the Right Size: Your pup’s crate should be spacious enough for them to stand, turn around, and lie down comfortably.

However, avoid a crate that’s too large, as it might encourage them to use one corner as a bathroom.

Positive Association: Introduce the crate as a positive place. Place treats, toys, and a soft blanket inside to make it inviting.

Gradually increase the time your pup spends in the crate, starting with short intervals.

Incorporating Treats and Toys

Treats for Good Behavior: Reward your puppy with treats and praise when they willingly enter the crate. This associates the crate with positive experiences.

Interactive Toys: Provide toys that keep your pup engaged. Kong toys stuffed with treats can make crate time enjoyable and mentally stimulating.

How to Potty Train a Puppy: The Road to Success

Potty training is a fundamental aspect of raising a well-mannered dog. Patience and consistency are key. Let’s break down the potty training process:

Establishing a Routine

Consistent Schedule: Puppies thrive on routine. Take your pup outside to their designated potty spot after waking up, eating, playing, and before bedtime. This minimizes accidents indoors.

Praise and Reward: When your puppy does their business outside, offer enthusiastic praise and a small treat. Positive reinforcement encourages them to repeat the behavior.

Understanding Puppy Cues

Watch for Signals: Puppies often display cues when they need to go potty, like sniffing around, circling, or becoming restless. Be attentive to these signs and take them outside promptly.

Accidents Happen: Despite your best efforts, accidents indoors are normal during the learning phase. Never scold your pup for accidents – it might create fear around potty time.

Did You Know?

Dogs are naturally clean animals. They instinctively avoid soiling their living spaces. Crate training taps into this instinct, making it a valuable tool for potty training.

By utilizing the crate as a positive space and maintaining a consistent potty training routine, you’re setting your pup up for success.

Remember, every puppy is unique, so be patient and adapt your training techniques to suit their individual needs.

Leash Training Dogs and Puppies

Leash training is essential for controlled walks and outings:

Start Early: Begin leash training when your dog is young to instill good habits.

Positive Association: Use treats and praise to associate the leash with positive experiences.

Gradual Progress: Start indoors and then move to your yard before venturing to busier environments.

Teaching Loose Leash Walking

Teaching your dog to walk on a loose leash reduces pulling:

Stop and Go: When your dog pulls, stop walking. Resume only when the leash is loose.

Change Directions: If your dog pulls, change direction abruptly to regain their attention.

Reward for Good Behavior: Reward your dog for walking beside you with treats and praise.

Positive Reinforcement Methods

Positive reinforcement is a cornerstone of effective training:

Timing: Reward your dog immediately after they exhibit the desired behavior.

Variety: Mix up treats, praise, and toys to keep training exciting and unpredictable.

Consistency: Be consistent in your rewards and commands to avoid confusion.

Socializing Dogs and Puppies

Proper socialization helps your dog become comfortable in various situations:

Exposure: Introduce your dog to different environments, sounds, and people gradually.

Positive Experiences: Ensure each encounter is positive and rewarding, building confidence.

Puppy Socialization Checklist

Use this checklist to cover crucial socialization areas:

  1. Handling: Gently touch your puppy’s paws, ears, and mouth to help them become accustomed to grooming and vet visits.
  2. Sounds: Expose your puppy to common household and outdoor noises.
  3. People: Introduce your puppy to various people, including children, adults, and strangers.
  4. Other Dogs: Arrange controlled playdates with friendly, vaccinated dogs to encourage healthy interactions.

Meeting Other Dogs and People

When introducing your dog to new dogs and people:

Controlled Setting: Start in a neutral environment and supervise interactions.

Positive Experience: Reward calm and friendly behavior with treats and praise.

Remember, training is a journey that requires patience and consistency, but the rewards of a well-mannered and happy companion are immeasurable.

As Cesar Millan wisely put it, “Dogs do not think in terms of verbal language but in energy.” Through positive energy and effective training, you’re creating a harmonious bond that will last a lifetime.

Basic Commands and Cues

Mastering basic commands and cues is essential for effective communication and control between you and your dog.

In this section, we’ll explore the foundational commands that provide the framework for a well-trained and responsive canine companion.

Dog Training Basic Commands
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Teaching Basic Commands

1. Sit

Teaching your dog to sit is often the first command to master:

Lure Method: Hold a treat close to your dog’s nose and move it upward. As their head follows the treat, their bottom will naturally lower. Say “Sit” and reward.

2. Stay

The “stay” command helps keep your dog in place:

Begin with Sit: Start with your dog in a sitting position.

Open Palm Signal: Show your open palm in front of your dog’s face and say “Stay.”

Step Back: Take a step back and wait a moment before returning to reward them.

3. Come

The “come” command ensures your dog comes to you when called:

Positive Association: Use a cheerful tone and reward generously when they come to you.

Leash Training: Start in a low-distraction area and gradually increase the distance.

4. Touch

“Touch” is a fun command that helps with focus and interaction:

Offer Your Hand: Extend your hand, and say “Touch.”

Reward: When your dog touches your hand with their nose, reward immediately.

5. Leave It

“Leave it” teaches your dog to ignore tempting items:

Start with Treats: Hold a treat in your closed fist and say “Leave it.”

Reward for Ignoring: When your dog stops trying to get the treat, reward them with a different treat.

6. Lie Down

Teaching your dog to lie down is useful for relaxation:

Lure Method: Hold a treat near their nose, then lower it to the ground. As they follow, their body will naturally lower.

Verbal Cue: Say “Lie down” as they go into the position. Reward when they’re down.

Clicker Training for Dogs

Clicker training dogs
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Clicker training is a powerful method using a clicker to mark desired behaviors:

Clicker Introduction: Get your dog used to the clicker sound by clicking and immediately giving a treat.

Precise Marking: Click at the exact moment your dog performs the desired behavior.

Clicker Conditioning and Usage

Condition your dog to associate the clicker with rewards:

Click-Treat Connection: Click the clicker and immediately follow with a treat several times.

Start Training: Use the clicker to mark behaviors you want to reinforce.

Consistency: Be consistent with your timing and pairing of the click and reward.

Whether you’re teaching “sit,” “stay,” “come,” or any other command, remember that patience, positive reinforcement, and consistency are key.

Clicker training can be a valuable tool to enhance your training efforts, providing clear communication and strengthening your bond with your dog.

As you embark on this training journey, keep in mind that every small success is a step toward a more harmonious and joyful relationship with your four-legged friend.

Tricks and Advanced Training

As you and your dog continue to grow together, exploring fun tricks and advanced commands can elevate your training experience.

This section will guide you through teaching delightful tricks and more sophisticated commands, as well as handling challenges that may arise along the way.

Fun Tricks

1. Roll Over

Teaching your dog to roll over is a joyful trick:

Lure Method: Start with your dog in a “down” position. Hold a treat close to their nose, then move it in a circular motion over their head.

Encourage Roll: As they follow the treat, their body will naturally roll over. Reward and praise.

2. Play Dead

“Play dead” is a charming trick that requires patience:

Start with Lie Down: Begin with your dog in a “lie down” position.

Lure to Side: Hold a treat close to their nose, then slowly move it to the side. Their body will roll onto their side.

Extend the Trick: Gradually prolong the “dead” position before rewarding.

3. High Five

“High five” adds a touch of interaction:

Hold Treat in Hand: Show your dog a treat in your closed hand.

Lift Hand: Lift your hand slightly, and your dog will naturally raise their paw to reach the treat.

Teaching Advanced Commands

1. Heel

Teaching your dog to walk on a loose leash by your side:

Position: Start with your dog on your left side.

Positive Reinforcement: Reward your dog for walking calmly beside you.

2. Wait

The “wait” command enhances impulse control:

Start with Sit or Stay: Begin with your dog in a sitting or staying position.

Open Palm Signal: Show your open palm and say “Wait” before moving away.

3. Speak/Quiet

Teaching your dog to bark on command and be quiet:

Speak: Encourage barking by using a command like “Speak.” Reward.

Quiet: Use “Quiet” when your dog stops barking. Reward when they comply.

Proofing Behaviors and Troubleshooting

Distraction Training

Gradually introduce distractions while practicing commands:

Start Small: Begin with mild distractions and increase difficulty over time.

Positive Reinforcement: Reward your dog for focusing on you despite distractions.

Addressing Common Behavior Challenges

Challenges may arise; here’s how to handle them:

Jumping: Teach “off” to discourage jumping and reward calm behavior.

Barking: Use “quiet” and reward silence. Address the underlying cause of excessive barking.

Pulling on Leash: Reinforce “heel” and reward loose leash walking. Avoid harsh corrections.

By mastering these advanced skills and addressing behavior challenges, you’re shaping a canine companion who not only understands your cues but also brings joy and harmony to your lives together.

Puppy Training

In this section, we’ll delve into the crucial realm of puppy training, exploring why early training matters, offering practical tips for success, and highlighting important training milestones based on your pup’s age.

Importance of Early Puppy Training

Start early, reap the rewards later!” This saying holds true when it comes to training your adorable furball.

Early puppy training isn’t just about teaching commands; it’s about setting the foundation for a lifetime of good behavior and mutual understanding. Here’s why it’s so important:

  1. Behavior Formation: Just like young minds are sponges for learning, young puppies are primed to absorb information and habits. Early training helps mold their behavior positively.
  2. Socialization: Early interactions with people, other dogs, and various environments help your pup become confident and less likely to develop behavioral issues.
  3. Bonding: Training sessions create opportunities for bonding and communication between you and your pup. This builds trust and strengthens your relationship.
  4. Prevention is Easier than Correction: It’s easier to prevent bad behaviors from forming than to correct them later. Early training saves you from headaches down the road.

Puppy Training Tips for Success

Now, let’s get into the nitty-gritty of effective puppy training.

Remember, patience and consistency are your best friends throughout this process.

1. Positive Reinforcement: Reward good behavior with treats, praise, and affection. This encourages your pup to repeat the behavior.

2. Short and Sweet: Keep training sessions short (5-10 minutes) to prevent your pup from getting bored or frustrated.

3. Consistency: Use consistent commands and cues to avoid confusing your pup. If you use “sit” today and “sit down” tomorrow, your pup might be puzzled.

4. Be Patient: Rome wasn’t built in a day, and neither is a perfectly trained pup. Be patient and understanding during the learning process.

5. One Command at a Time: Focus on one command before moving to the next. Mastering one skill boosts your pup’s confidence.

6. Timing is Key: Praise and reward your pup immediately after they perform the desired behavior. This helps them associate the action with the reward.

7. Environment Matters: Start training in a quiet, distraction-free environment. As your pup progresses, gradually introduce distractions to test their focus.

Puppy Training Milestones by Age

Each age bracket brings unique challenges and opportunities for training. Let’s break down the milestones for different age groups:

8-10 Weeks

Your pup is a sponge for learning. Focus on:

  • Socialization: Introduce your pup to people, dogs, sounds, and sights.
  • Potty Training: Begin establishing a routine for potty breaks.
  • Handling: Get your pup used to being touched, groomed, and handled.

10-12 Weeks

Your pup’s confidence is growing. Train for:

  • Basic Commands: Start with essential commands like sit, stay, and come.
  • Leash Introduction: Begin leash training in a safe and controlled environment.
  • Crate Training: Introduce the crate as a safe space.

3-4 Months

Your pup’s energy is soaring. Train for:

  • Distraction Training: Work on commands amidst mild distractions.
  • Continued Socialization: Expose your pup to various environments and experiences.
  • Chewing Habits: Teach appropriate chew toys and discourage destructive chewing.

4-6 Months

Your pup’s adolescent behavior emerges. Train for:

  • Advanced Commands: Build on previous commands with more complex ones.
  • Impulse Control: Teach your pup to wait and control impulses.
  • Patience: Your pup might challenge boundaries; remain consistent.

Remember, every pup is unique and progresses at its pace. Celebrate small victories and keep the big picture in mind – a well-mannered and joyful companion!

Troubleshooting and Behavioral Solutions for a Well-Balanced Puppy

This section aims to provide you with practical solutions to some of the most common puppy challenges, enabling you to foster a harmonious relationship with your furry friend.

Overcoming Common Puppy Challenges


Puppies often explore the world through their mouths, and while their playful nips may be endearing, they can also be painful.

To tackle this, remember the three Ps: Prevent, Redirect, and Reward. Keep chew toys handy, redirect their attention when they start mouthing, and praise them when they engage with appropriate toys.

Separation Anxiety

Leaving your puppy alone can trigger separation anxiety, leading to howling and destructive behavior.

Ease them into solitude with gradual departures, create a comfy space, and consider leaving an item with your scent.


Chewing is natural for puppies, but it doesn’t have to mean shredded shoes and furniture.

Provide a variety of chew toys, discourage inappropriate chewing by using bitter sprays, and supervise them until they learn what’s acceptable to chew.


Puppies use barking to communicate, but excessive barking can be bothersome. Teach the “quiet” command, address the underlying cause (boredom, fear, or attention-seeking), and ensure they get enough mental and physical stimulation.

Addressing Leash Reactivity

Walking your puppy should be enjoyable, but leash reactivity can turn it into a challenge.

Use the LAT method (Look at That): when your puppy spots a trigger, encourage them to look at it and then reward their calm behavior. Gradually decrease the distance from the trigger while rewarding positive responses.

Handling Resource Guarding

Puppies can become possessive of their toys or food, showing resource-guarding behavior.

Safely manage the situation by trading objects for treats, teaching the “drop it” command, and making positive associations with your presence near their belongings.

Curbing Jumping Behavior

Jumping is a sign of excitement, but it can be troublesome when your puppy jumps on guests.

Teach an alternative behavior like sitting, and reward four-on-the-floor behavior.

Remember, every puppy is unique, so tailor your approach to suit their personality and needs.

With time and dedication, you’ll build a strong bond and enjoy a harmonious companionship with your furry friend.

Advanced Puppy Training (Weeks 1-8)

In this section, we’re diving deep into the world of advanced puppy training, specifically for the first 8 weeks.

Buckle up, because your pup’s about to become a star pupil!

Week 1-2: Sweet Dreams and Alone Time

Alright, first things first – getting those Zzz’s sorted. Your furball needs quality shut-eye, and you do too!

Create a cozy sleep spot and build a routine. Gradually, give your pup a little alone time to avoid separation jitters.

Pro Tip: Snuggle up with a warm water bottle in a cloth to recreate that snug litter vibe.

Week 3-4: Meeting the World (Safely)

Time to turn your pup into a social butterfly! Introduce them to a variety of faces, furry and not-so-furry.

Think doggy playdates and friendly encounters with new folks. Positive vibes all the way!

Did You Know: Those early weeks, around 3 to 14, are like social superchargers for puppies?

Week 5-6: Puppy Einstein Mode: ON

Teaching time, woohoo! Start with the classics – ‘sit,’ ‘stay,’ ‘down,’ and the all-important ‘come.’ Remember, positive vibes only. Treats, high-fives, and toy rewards are your new secret weapons.

“Training isn’t about being the big dog. It’s about building big bonds.”

Week 7-8: Grooming Guru in the Making

Grooming – sounds fancy, right? Well, it’s all about keeping your pup looking and feeling top-notch.

Brush those luscious locks, trim those tiny nails, and give those ears a gentle clean. And hey, remember to flash that puppy smile!

TaskHow OftenTop Tips
Brushing2-3 times/weekStart short, soft brushes FTW.
Nail TrimmingOnce every 2 weeksDog clippers, easy does it.
Ear CleaningOnce a weekWet cloth, outer ears only.
Teeth Cleaning3-4 times/weekDog toothpaste, gentle brush moves.

High fives all around – you’ve made it through the advanced training weeks! Keep in mind, your pup’s as unique as a unicorn, so feel free to tweak these tips to match their style.

Stay cool, stay patient, and give yourself a pat on the back for the wins, no matter how teeny.

Conclusion and Additional Resources

Throughout this journey, you’ve learned the ins and outs of turning your furry companion into a well-behaved and happy member of your family.

As we wrap up, let’s take a moment to celebrate your dog’s progress and explore avenues for further learning.

Celebrating Your Dog’s Progress

Your hard work and dedication have paid off! From those early days of teaching basic commands to the more advanced tricks, you’ve witnessed your dog’s growth.

Remember, every small achievement is a step towards a better-behaved pup. Take time to cherish these moments and appreciate the bond you’ve developed with your four-legged friend.

Milestones to Acknowledge

Basic Commands: Recall how your dog learned to sit, stay, and come when called. These commands form the foundation of good behavior.

Leash Manners: Think about how leash pulling transformed into pleasant walks where you and your dog are in sync.

Socialization: Reflect on your dog’s improved interactions with other dogs and people, fostering a sense of confidence.

Behavioral Improvements: Whether it’s reduced barking or better crate behavior, these small victories contribute to a harmonious home environment.

Continuing Education with Dog Training

Just like humans, dogs are lifelong learners. Continue the journey of discovery and growth with your pup by exploring more advanced training techniques and activities.

Keep Learning Together

Advanced Commands: Teach your dog more complex commands like “roll over,” “fetch,” or even interactive tricks like “give paw.”

Agility Training: Engage in agility exercises to challenge your dog’s physical abilities while enhancing the bond between you two.

Scent Work: Tap into your dog’s natural scenting abilities by introducing scent detection games – a fun and mentally stimulating activity.

Interactive Toys: Invest in puzzles and toys that encourage problem-solving, keeping your dog engaged and mentally sharp.

Recommended Books, Websites, and Training Schools

As you delve deeper into the world of dog training, various resources can provide invaluable insights and guidance.

Here’s a list of recommended books, websites, and training schools to further enhance your expertise:

Books For Dog Training

“The Power of Positive Dog Training” by Pat Miller: Discover positive reinforcement techniques and strategies for effective communication with your dog.

“Don’t Shoot the Dog!” by Karen Pryor: Learn about behavior modification and training principles from a pioneer in the field of animal training.


American Kennel Club (AKC): A treasure trove of articles, videos, and resources covering various aspects of dog training and care.

Karen Pryor Clicker Training: Explore the world of clicker training, a powerful and positive training method

Training Schools

Association of Professional Dog Trainers (APDT): Find certified trainers near you and access educational resources for both beginners and seasoned trainers.

Jean Donaldson’s Academy for Dog Trainers: Enroll in courses offered by renowned dog behaviorist Jean Donaldson to deepen your understanding of canine behavior.

Embrace the Journey

Remember, dog training is an ongoing process filled with discovery and growth. Celebrate your achievements, no matter how small, and keep an open mind as you continue to learn alongside your furry friend.

With dedication and the right resources, you can nurture a strong and lasting bond that brings joy to both you and your beloved canine companion.

Thank you for joining us on this enriching adventure in dog training. Wishing you and your dog a lifetime of happiness, learning, and companionship! 🐾

Explore more:


Q1: What are the 5 golden rules of dog training?

The 5 golden rules of dog training include consistency, positive reinforcement, patience, short sessions, and ending positively.

Q2: How do you train a dog easily?

Yes, you can train a 1-year-old dog. While younger dogs might learn faster, older dogs can still learn new behaviors through proper training techniques.

Q3: What is the best age for dog training?

The best age for dog training is around 3 to 6 months, when puppies are more receptive to learning. However, training can be effective at any age.

Q4: What are the 7 dog commands?

The 7 essential dog commands are sit, stay, come, down, heel, off, and leave it.

Q5: What is the 7-7-7 rule for dogs?

The 7-7-7 rule for dogs suggests that by the time a dog is 7 months old, they should be able to stay in a crate for up to 7 hours and be left alone for up to 7 hours at night.